Published May 06, 2023 by

Low Blood Pressure: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments


General description 

Less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic) is considered as low blood pressure. 

One person's normal blood pressure may be another person's low blood pressure. Low blood pressure may remain unnoticed or may result in fainting and dizziness. Low blood pressure can occasionally prove life threatening. 

Dehydration and serious diseases are only two examples of the many conditions that can result in low blood pressure. It's critical to identify the source of your low blood pressure so that, if necessary, it may be addressed.

Types of low blood pressure include:

Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension):

When you get out of bed or when you get up suddenly, your blood pressure drops. 

Some of the causes include dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, specific medical conditions, and various medicines. Such low blood pressure is common in older adults. 

Postprandial hypotension 

One to two hours after eating, this drop in blood pressure occurs.Older persons are particularly susceptible, especially those with high blood pressure or disorders of the autonomic nervous system, including Parkinson's disease.Eating small portions of low-carb meals, drinking more water, and avoiding alcohol may help reduce symptoms.

Neural mediated hypotension: 

It consists of a drop in blood pressure that occurs after standing for long periods of time. This type of low blood pressure mainly affects young adults and children. It could be due to a failure in communication between the heart and the brain. 

Multiple system atrophy with orthostatic hypotension: 

This rare disorder, also called Shy-Drager syndrome, affects the nervous system that controls involuntary functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and digestion. It is related to having very high blood pressure when lying down.


Common symptoms of low blood pressure (hypotension) are include below:

Blurry or diminishing vision 

Dizziness or lightheadedness 



Difficult to focus 


For some people, low blood pressure can be a sign of an underlying disease, especially when it drops suddenly or is accompanied by symptoms. 

It can be harmful suddenly when the blood pressure falls. Dizziness and fainting can occur with a shift of merely 20 mm Hg (for instance, a decrease in systolic pressure from 110 mm Hg to 90 mm Hg). Large falls that result in serious infections, uncontrollable bleeding, or allergic responses can be fatal.

The condition known as shock can result from extremely low blood pressure.Symptoms of shock include the following: 

Confusion, especially in older people

Cold clammy skin 

Decreased skin coloration (paleness)

Shallow and rapid breathing 

Weak and fast pulse

When should you see a doctor? 

Seek immediate medical attention if you exhibit shock-related or severely low blood pressure (hypotension) symptoms. 

Most health care providers consider blood pressure too low only if it causes symptoms. Minor and sporadic dizziness or lightheadedness can be due to many reasons, such as spending a lot of time in the sun or in a bathtub. It is important to consult with a doctor for a proper diagnosis. 

If you have consistently low blood pressure readings but feel fine, your health care provider may only monitor you during routine medical exams. It may help to keep track of your symptoms, when they occur, and what you are doing at the time.


Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the degree of resistance to blood flow in the arteries. Blood pressure measurement is determined in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). It has two numbers: 

Systolic pressure: The first number (top) is the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats. diastolic pressure. The pressure in the arteries between heartbeats is represented by the second number (bottom). 

American Heart Association categorized ideal blood pressure as normal. Ideal blood pressure is usually less than 120/80 mm Hg. 

Blood pressure varies throughout the day, depending on factors such as the following: 

body position 


Food and drinks 


physical state 


Time of the day 

Blood pressure is generally lowest at night and rises rapidly upon awakening. Certain medical conditions and the use of medications can cause low blood pressure.

Diseases that can cause low blood pressure 

Low blood pressure can be brought on by any of the following health issues: 


As a result of changes brought on by pregnancy, blood vessels quickly expand. These changes may cause a decrease in your blood pressure.During the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, low blood pressure is typical. After birth, blood pressure typically recovers to pre-pregnancy levels. 

2. Heart and heart valve conditions: 

Low blood pressure can be brought on by a heart attack, heart failure, heart valve dysfunction, or an abnormally slow heartbeat (bradycardia). 

3.Hormone-related diseases (endocrine disorders):

 Diseases that affect the parathyroid or adrenal glands, such as Addison's disease, can cause a drop in blood pressure. Also, low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) and, in some cases, diabetes can cause your blood pressure to drop.


When there is not enough water, the amount of blood in the body decreases. This may cause a decrease in blood pressure.Dehydration can be brought on by fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea, overusing diuretics, and vigorous activity. 

5.Loss of blood: 

Losing a lot of blood, such as from injury or internal bleeding, also reduces blood volume, causing a severe drop in blood pressure. 

6.Serious infection (septicaemia): 

Septic shock, a potentially fatal reduction in blood pressure, can occur when an infection in the body enters the circulation. 

7.Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis):

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include a sudden, drastic drop in blood pressure. 

8.Lack of nutrients in the diet: 

Low levels of vitamin B-12, folate, and iron can prevent the body from making enough red blood cells (anemia), which can cause blood pressure to drop.

Diagnosis and treatment 

In order to establish a diagnosis, it is necessary to find the cause of your low blood pressure. Therefore, your doctor, in addition to reviewing your symptoms and medical history, and performing a physical examination, will request laboratory tests and studies such as an electrocardiogram, tilt table test, and x-rays. 

The treatment to follow will depend on the cause of your low blood pressure, but it may consist of increasing, reducing or suspending the dose of certain medications. However, you can contribute to normalizing your blood pressure by changing your habits to adopt a healthy lifestyle based on:

*Consuming more water. 

*Doing physical activity. 

*Increase your level of sodium intake, as long as your doctor recommends it.

*To stop blood from gathering in the legs, put on some compression stockings. 

Natural medicine 

Most people with low blood pressure do not need drugs or medical interventions to raise their blood pressure. There are many natural ways and lifestyle changes to raise low blood pressure, including the following: 

1. Eat more salt 

Contrary to popular advice, low sodium diets are not recommended for everyone with blood pressure problems. For people with low blood pressure, they should consider increasing their sodium intake moderately to help raise blood pressure. 

2. Avoid alcoholic beverages 

Alcohol consumption should be limited for those with hypotension since it can further drop blood pressure. 

3. Talk to the doctor about medications 

Low blood pressure can be a side effect of various medications. If the symptoms of this condition start after starting any medication, the person should talk to their doctor about these symptoms. 

4. Cross your legs when sitting 

Crossing the legs when sitting has been shown to raise blood pressure.This can be a problem for people having high pressure.  But crossing your legs can help people with symptoms of low blood pressure raise their blood pressure with minimal effort. 

5. Drink water 

A potential reason of low blood pressure can be reduced by increasing blood volume, which can be achieved by drinking more water. Dehydration can also be avoided.

6. Eat smaller meals more often

Eating small meals more frequently throughout the day can help with low blood pressure. 

This is because smaller portions prevent the drop in blood pressure that is associated with eating larger, heavier portions. 

7. Wear compression stockings 

Compression stockings help reduce the amount of blood that pools in the lower legs and feet, displacing it elsewhere.

Compression stockings are also used to relieve pressure and pain associated with varicose veins. You can buy them online.

8. Avoid sudden position changes 

Sitting or standing up suddenly can cause a light-headed feeling, dizziness, or potentially fainting in people with low blood pressure. 

In these cases, the heart does not pump enough blood throughout the body as quickly to compensate for the sudden change in position or elevation. 

9. Be aware of the symptoms 

Low blood pressure is only considered a problem if the person has symptoms. If there are no symptoms, low blood pressure should be considered a sign of good health. 

It is important that people know the symptoms and understand what to watch for if low blood pressure starts to cause problems.

Medications that can cause low blood pressure 

Some medications, such as the following, can cause low blood pressure:

★Diuretics like hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide) and furosemide (Lasix)

★Alpha blockers, such as prazosin (Minipress) 

★ Some Beta blockers like atenolol (Tenormin) and propranolol (Inderal, Innopran XL, Hemangeol) 

★Medications to treat Parkinson's disease, such as pramipexole (Mirapex) or those containing levodopa 

★Some types of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants), such as doxepin (Silenor) and imipramine (Tofranil) 

★Medications to treat erectile dysfunction, such as sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) or tadalafil (Adcirca, Alyq, Cialis), especially when taken with nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Nitro-Dur, Nitromist) to treat heart conditions.

Risk factor's 

Anyone can have low blood pressure (hypotension). Risk factors for hypotension include the following: 

★Age: The decrease in blood pressure when standing up or after eating occurs mainly in adults over 65 years of age. Nerve-mediated hypotension primarily affects children and young adults. 

★Medicines: Certain medications, such as some blood pressure medications, increase the risk of low blood pressure. 

★Certain diseases: Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and some heart conditions can increase your risk of low blood pressure. 


Some of the possible complications of low blood pressure (hypotension) include: 



Fainting fall injury 

Blood pressure that is too low can lower the body's oxygen levels and cause damage to the heart and brain.

Other tips 

If natural remedies are ineffective for you, you might want to ask your doctor to prescribe some prescription to assist boost your blood pressure. 

A person may also consider: 

*do not lift heavy objects. 

*don't keep standing in one place for a long period of time. 

*raise your head from your bed. 

*avoid exposing yourself to hot water for a long time. 

*drink more fluids when exercising or on hot days.