Published January 15, 2024 by

Iselin's Disease: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Iselin's Disease 

Iselin's disease is often referred to as Iselin's osteochondritis of the foot. The disease usually affects growing adolescents(from 8 to 14) who are physically active. The disease manifests as inflammation or irritation that attacks the growth plate of the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. Iselin's disease can cause the bone to become swollen, inflamed, or even baked. The fifth metatarsal bone is a large bone on the outermost side of the foot that plays an important role in weight bearing and balance. As a result, people affected by this disease suffer from problems in carrying or balancing the body weight. Adults can also be affected by this disease.

If affected by the disease, it recovers on its own. It is not a long-term illness and does not require surgery. However, it can cause a lot of suffering if the disease occurs.

Causes of Iselin's Disease 

There are no specific causes behind Iselin's disease. However, the disease can occur during the rapid growth spurt of puberty. This disease can also occur due to excessive pressure on the foot, especially on the fifth metatarsal bone. This can be caused by repetitive stress on the foot while playing sports. Some biomechanical factors such as defective bone formation in the foot can cause this disease. The disease can also be genetic. After all, the disease is a multifactorial disease.


There are not many specific symptoms of the disease. However, some common signs that indicate the disease have been mentioned. There may be pain in the affected area, tenderness to touch, swelling of the affected area, discomfort during weight bearing or heavy activities, tightness of the affected area, difficulty in moving the legs, etc.


 is a combination of clinical evaluation. In this case the doctor will check the patient's past medical history and genetic history. Moreover, the type of disease will be diagnosed by considering the swelling, tenderness, pain of the affected area, especially around the fifth metatarsal bone. In some cases, the doctor may suggest an X-ray, but the X-ray may not fully reveal the origin and exact cause of the pain.


Treatment of this disease can usually be done at home. Usually no surgery or medication is needed. In this case, it is possible to eliminate the severity and symptoms of this disease with adequate care and maintenance. Some common methods that can be followed to get relief from this disease are discussed.

This disease can be cured by taking adequate rest and avoiding weight bearing work. This will reduce the pressure on the metatarsal bone of the foot and allow the affected bone to recover faster. Compression bands can be used to relieve bone swelling problems. Applying ice to the affected area will relieve pain and inflammation. Ice should be used for short periods of time, especially after physical activity. Elevating the foot in the rest time will reduce the swelling and relax the affected area. Comfortable and loose shoes should be worn for the feet so that no extra pressure is felt on the feet. Some OTC drugs such as acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be prescribed. If these approaches are followed properly, the disease can be easily cured.

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Published January 13, 2024 by

Hape Medicine: A Tribal Tradition

Hape, sometimes referred to as Rape, is a form of sacred traditional medicine found in South America, particularly in the Amazon rainforest. It is the significant bearer and bearer of the traditions and culture of some ethnic groups. This medicine is still part of the traditions of   Katukina, Yawanawa, Kaxinawa, Nukini, Kuntanawa, Apurinã, Ashaninka and many other ethnic groups. There are various opinions on the use of Hapa medicine. However, there is evidence to support its consumption.

Preparation of Hape Medicine 

Its preparation is prepared by skilled tribals following certain procedures in a long process. Its preparation methods may vary from tribe to tribe, but general preparation methods are discussed here.

First, the necessary leaves, bark, other necessary parts of the tree are collected. Wood ash and some other ingredients are added to these ingredients as required. After all the ingredients are collected they are allowed to dry in the sun and dried. Once all the ingredients are dried they are crushed. They are crushed into a perfectly uniform shape by a special type of crushing machine.

When all are evenly powdered, a certain amount of tobacco is mixed with them. This tobacco is not like the tobacco available in the market. They are cultivated and cared separately for the purpose of making hape medicine. When tobacco is mixed, other necessary ingredients are added to it. Sometimes fragrances are also added to make the mixture more attractive and useful.The tribal people pray to their deity during preparation to make the mixture of excellent quality. They believe their prayer will make the medicine more energetic, more resistant to disease and of better quality.

Prepared mixtures are stored in proper containers to avoid exposure to moisture and other harmful substances.

How To Take Hape Medicine 

This medicinal mixture is taken through a tube with two ends, which looks a bit like a V shape. According to the traditional rules, one supplies these medicine powders at one end of the pipe and the consumer takes the powders. These medicinal powders are consumed by inhalation through the nostrils. But in this case some rules are followed. Since tobacco is also part of the mixture, it should be taken in controlled and proper amounts. However, its consumption method may be different depending on the tribe.


Its health benefits are largely theoretical and mostly based on tribal beliefs. There are many positive and negative theories about this medicine. However, it is good to keep in mind that there are some scientific limitations to its health benefits. Its usage and beliefs vary from tribe to tribe. However, here are some of the common health benefits of hape medicine discussed:

• Some of the herbal ingredients in Hape Medicine provide respiratory support

• Certain plant ingredients are believed to have antimicrobial properties

• This medicine is believed to have analgesic properties

• This drug is believed to have a relaxing role, used to reduce stress.

• This medicine has anti-inflammatory role. 

• This medicine is often used for mental clarity and refreshment. 

• Plays a role in increasing attention

• Tribals believe that this medicine balances the energy in the body and promotes prosperity. 

• It is used for mental well-being and emotional upliftment.

• Tribals believe that Hape medicine removes toxins from the body and destroys harmful substances. 

• It can relieve sinus related problems

• Tribals believe it improves the cardiovascular system by increasing blood circulation. 

• Enables the body to adapt to the new environment. 

• Its consumption is helpful in relieving anxiety.

• Hape may contain some antioxidant substances that provide the body with antioxidants. 

• Tribals believe that it strengthens the body's immune system.

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Published January 11, 2024 by

How To Reverse Periodontal Disease Naturally At Home

Periodontal disease - Periodontitis

Periodontal disease is a type of bacterial inflammatory disease that affects the gums and surrounding tissues. The disease is manifested by gingivitis, where the gums become red, swollen, and the gums may bleed. If the disease is not treated, the disease transforms into periodontal disease and takes a more serious form.

In this disease, the gums move away from the teeth and empty space is created between them. This empty space is ideal for plaque build-up and bacterial infection. When a bacteria invades, the body's immune system produces toxins against the bacteria, and the bacteria produce their own toxins. These toxin erodes the bone and connective tissue that holds the tooth in place, causing the tooth to become unstable and lead to tooth loss.


The main cause of periodontal disease is the invasion of bacteria and the formation of plaque in the teeth. Basically, the disease spreads due to insufficient health protection of the teeth. Some of the common factors that cause the disease are smoking, genetic problems, systemic diseases like diabetes etc. In women, the disease can spread during pregnancy and menstruation. In the above cases, the immune system of the gums decreases and the disease can spread.

Stages of periodontal disease 



Aggressive periodontidisease

Necrotizing periodontal disease

Methods of treatments 

• Non-surgical treatments

• Surgical treatments

• Medications 

• Laser therapy 

• Ongoing maintenance 

Reversing Periodontal disease naturally 

Reversing periodontal disease naturally depends on certain approaches such as dental hygiene, diet, and lifestyle. It is also possible to reverse this disease with some natural remedies. Here are some guidelines to control and cure the disease naturally:

Proper brushing

Brushing teeth properly can prevent plaque build-up at the root of the tooth. It removes plaque, removes bacterial lining and removes food particles from the gums. If the plaque build-up is not removed, the gums become infected and the disease spreads. Brushing also sensitizes the gums and increases blood circulation. As a result, the proper health protection of the gums is improved.


Flossing can reach between the teeth and gums where a brush cannot. Flossing prevents plaque formation and removes bacteria from the gums and prevents gum infections. It can ensure tooth protection by removing accumulated plaque before it hardens.


Antimicrobial mouthwash/resins prevent bacterial infection in the gums and reduce the risk of infection as well as help heal the disease. Certain mouthwashes/resins like salt water relieves gum pain and prevents gum discomfort. 

Limiting Sugary Foods

Sweet foods are ideal for the growth of bacteria in the teeth. These bacteria are responsible for causing plaque on the teeth. Tooth infection can be prevented by avoiding sugary foods. If the bacteria proliferate, the bacteria release an acid that is harmful to the teeth. Also, sweets are responsible for increasing inflammation which can contribute to gum pain. So sweet food should be avoided.

Increasing Calcium Intake

We all know that calcium is a very important element for the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. Calcium strengthens teeth and gums. Calcium also combines with other minerals such as phosphorus, vitamin D to ensure tooth protection through remineralization. Consuming more calcium will also boost your immune system to gum disease and prevent bone loss around the teeth. Calcium also helps in tissue repair which is very crucial in reversing the periodontal disease. 

Quitting Smoking

Quitting smoke can be effective in treating periodontal disease as tobacco has a very toxic effect on the gums. Smoking also impairs blood circulation, weakens the immune system, and complicates tissue repair, which essentially makes the disease more dangerous. By abandoning this bad habit, it is possible to ensure proper protection of the gums.

Eucalyptus Oil

Eucalyptus oil is appreciated for its anti-inflammatory role. Its effective anti-inflammatory properties can be effective in treating gum pain associated with periodontal disease.

Vitamin C & D

Vitamin C is an important component in the production of dental collagen that may play a role in protecting gum health. On the other hand, vitamin D is an immune factor that plays a role in immune function that can build up the body's resistance against oral infections. This disease can be cured by consuming foods rich in vitamin C and D.

Stress management

Stress can weaken a person's immune system, which can make it harder to fight infection. Try to stay away from stress through yoga, meditation or mindfulness practice.

Aloe Vera Oil

Aloe Vera oil offers potential benefits in treating periodontal disease. Aloe vera has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties so its use can play a role in curing the disease. Aloe vera's antioxidant activity also contributes to the protection of gum health.

Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil is well known as a highly effective antimicrobial agent, especially as an anti-bacterial. It has special ability to eradicate and destroy the growth of bacteria which can play a role in curing periodontal disease. So, this disease can be cured naturally by taking tea tree oil.

Turmeric Paste

The active ingredient of turmeric paste is curcumin. Curcumin is a type of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. The use of turmeric paste can eliminate bacterial growth due to the effectiveness of curcumin. Turmeric paste is made by mixing turmeric powder with water or coconut oil. This turmeric paste can be gently massaged on the affected gums or used as a mouthwash.

Also, this disease can be easily eradicated by taking regular dental care, keeping the teeth clean, brushing the mouth frequently, and removing the dirt from the teeth.

In conclusion, natural approaches to treating periodontal disease offer many promising benefits. Especially the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of aloe vera oil, tea tree oil and turmeric paste play an effective role in reversing the disease. The above-mentioned ingredients also provide the necessary antioxidants for the gums. Thus by taking proper care we can reverse periodontal disease naturally.

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Published January 10, 2024 by

Grover's Disease: Foods To Avoid

Understanding the Grover's Disease 

Grover's disease is a rare disease of the skin that usually infects the body temporarily. The disease manifests itself as a red rash on the body, small spots and in some cases a mild rash. The disease is usually rare in young people. However, among those who have this disease, the number of men aged over 50 is more but in some cases, this disease can also happen to women.


The causes of this disease is still unknown. It can appear without any reason. Some popular but not proved reasons behind this disorder are random swings in temperature, sweating or burned skin. This disease is noticed in people who use bath tubs, steam rooms or who works in warming temperature. Sweat duct damage can be another reason behind this disease. 

Prevention of the disease

Grover's disease should be treated with medication. But during Grover's disease we can reverse the disease by changing the diet. We can naturally build resistance against the disease by avoiding foods that make the disease more likely to spread and by eating foods that help prevent the disease.

Foods to avoid

There are certain foods that should not be consumed during Grover's disease. These foods can greatly increase the arousal, symptoms and sensitivity of the disease. Grover's disease can be effectively controlled and cured through proper diet. This article talks about some foods that can be avoided during the disease period to prevent the spread of the disease to a large extent. These foods are discussed below:

• Spicy foods

Spicy food like chili powder, spicy sauce, raw spicy produce excess heat in the body. This excess heat will make Grover's disease more contagious within the body. So spicy food should not be taken.

• Caffeine

Coffee, coffee-like drinks, energy drinks, etc. increase body temperature and produce sweating, thereby creating an environment conducive to Grover's disease.

• Alcohol 

Alcoholic drinks dilate the blood vessels of the body which leads to the excretion of sweat from the body. As a result, such drinks increase the level of Grover's disease.

• High calorie foods

High calorie foods such as chocolate should be avoided. More calories generate a lot of heat in the body which is responsible for the production of sweat in the body.

• Citric/acidic fruits

Fruits like oranges, lemons, grapes are very acidic which can irritate the skin and make Grover's disease worse.

• Tomatoes 

Though tomatoes are rich in nutrients, they are acidic and can lead to the development of Grover's disease of the skin.

• Processed foods

Processed foods are loaded with additives, synthetic products, preservatives, and artificial ingredients that stimulate the body's immune system and may increase the symptoms and progression of the disease.

• Sweet foods and dairy products

Sweet foods increase the calorie content of the body and increase heat. On the other hand, in some patients, consumption of dairy products, cheese has been observed to worsen the symptoms of the disease.

• Shellfish

Though shellfish has not been found to be harmful in all cases, consumption of this food has been reported to trigger Grover's disease in some patients.

• Nuts 

Peanuts, tree-nuts and coconuts contain allergens that can cause allergic reaction in the body,  discomfort and irritation in cases of Grover's disease.

• Gluten Containing Products

Foods containing gluten are not directly responsible for stimulating Grover's disease. Until now, there has been no clear and precise link between gluten and the development of Grover's disease. However, gluten can act as a trigger for Grover's disease in some patients depending on the individual. Such foods should be avoided if such involvement of gluten is observed in some patients. 

• Red meats

There is no evidence of a direct link to Grover's disease with red meats, but red meats can trigger Grover's disease for some reasons. The first reason is that red meats behave as an allergic food in some people. Allergic stimuli may exacerbate Grover's disease. Second, red meats can act as an inflammatory agent that can make the symptoms of Grover's disease worse.

• Eggs

As an allergic food, eggs have the potential to trigger Grover's disease in some cases.


In case of Grover's disease, total awareness is required to cure the disease. In this case a controlled diet can be a good attempt. However, to cure the disease, we need maximum awareness and should quickly seek the help of a pathologist.

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Published December 04, 2023 by

Drug receptors: Types, Mechanism of Action


A receptor is a component of cell membranes that interacts and binds to a drug to initiate biochemical events leading to the drugs observed effects or to inhibit any specific physiological action in the body.

Drugs that bind to the receptor and initiates biological reactions in the body are known are agonist. On the other hand, drugs that inhibit the action of an agonist is known as antagonist. 

Nowadays, structural information of many receptor proteins are gained that has led to the developed molecular processes in drug-receptor interactions. 

A numerous numbers of receptor protiens have been discovered and their isolation, purification, cloning and sequence of amino acids has been established. Most of the receptors are protein in nature and some are glycoproteins. 

However, the signal transport process and mechanism of action of receptors are governed by a limited number of basic mechanisms. There are four super families of receptor proteins that covers most of the receptor proteins. The four super families are:

1. Ligand-gated ion channels

2. G-protein coupled receptors 

3. Intracellular receptors 

4. Tyrosine kinase linked receptors

Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors)

These are membrane bound receptors that are directly linked to an ion channel. These are large multisubunit receptors containing 4-5 subunits. When open, they allows the passage of Na+,K+,Ca++,Cl–.

Ligand gated ion channels are classified into three families based on their molecular and protein structure criteria. 

01. "cys-loop" ligand gated ion channels 

E.g: 5-HT3,GABA-A,GABA-B receptors

02. Glutamate receptors 

E.g: kinate receptors, metabotropic receptors, NMDA receptors

03. ATP-sensitive P2X receptors.

Their function include mediating neurotransmitter responses to the central and peripheral nervous system, also maybe in non-excitable cells. However, ligand itself is not the substance that is transmitted into the cell. They function by facilitating the signal transmission in CNS or PNS. 

Example of Ligand-gated ion channel receptor drugs include: Acetylcohline, Histamine, Serotonin.

G-protein(Guanine nucleotide-rugulatory protein)  coupled receptors

These are membrane-bound receptors coupled to G-proteins. After the activation of G-proteins, a variety of biochemical signal transmission pathways may be activated. These are also known as metabotropic receptors.

In eukaryotes, G-protein coupled receptors are the most variable and largest group of membrane receptors. Researchers claimed that about one half of the marketed drugs acts by binding with GPCRs.

Functional mechanism include the following pathway 

Receptor binding :

Receptor binding 

Mechanism of action :

Example of G-protein coupled receptor drugs include: CASR, CALCR, BDKRB1, BDKRB2

Tyrosine Kinase-linked receptor

Tyrosine  kinase-linked receptor are membrane bound receptor containing intrinsic enzymatic function in their intracellular domain for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines and hormones.There are 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in human genome.

Tyrosine kinase are important mediators of signal transduction process,leading to cell proliferation, migration, Programmed cell death etc.Besides those they also play an important role in growth,motility, differentiation and metabolism.

Tyrosine kinases are a family of enzymes that catalyzes phosphorylation of select tyrosine residues in target protein by using ATP.  Here,three distinct process may occur including ligand-induced dimerization, activation of the  cytoplasmic kinase domain and linking the activated Tyrosine Kinase to cell signaling.

Example of such receptors are the fibroblast growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptors.

Intracellular receptor regulating gene transcription 

Intracellular receptor regulating gene transcription are also known as nuclear receptor which are located in the cytosol. 

These receptors function via their capacity to recognize and bind specific ligand (e.g. steroid hormones). Once stimulated by ligands, intracellular receptor translocate to the nucleus and initiate gene transcription as well as they may alter the gene expression. 

Example of this types of receptors are thyroid hormone, Vitamin D and the large group of steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and the sex steroid hormones.

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Published December 01, 2023 by

Agonist vs Antagonist || Classifications, Differences, Mechanism of Action


Agonists are types of drug that bind and activate a receptor and induces many physiological reactions. They can make physiological responses in the body and turn the neurotransmitters in action.

Agonists type with examples 

01. Full agonist 

E.g: heroin, methadone, morphine, opium

02. Partial agonist

E.g: buspirone, buprenorphine, narclozapine

03. Orthosteric agonist

E.g: imatinib

04. Direct agonist

E.g: morphine, nicotine 

05. Indirect agonist

E.g: cocaine 

06. Inverse agonist

E.g: GABAA, mu opoid, histamine

07. Physiological agonist

E.g: epinephrine & hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)

08. Endogenous agonist

E.g: serotonin for serotonin receptors & dopamine for dopamine receptors

09. Exogenous agonist

E.g: heroin, caffeine, ibuprofen 

10. Selective agonist

E.g: buspirone is a selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1A. 


Antagonists are the type of drug that limits/ inhibits the action of agonists. They exert their pharmacological effects by playing the opposing role of the agonists. They works by blocking the activation of certain receptors of cell and by preventing biological responses.

Types of Antagonists with example 

1. Full antagonist 

E.g: naltrexone & naloxone

2. Chemical antagonist 

E.g: narcan, naltrexone

3. Physiological antagonist 

E.g: glucagon

4. Pharmacokinetic antagonist 

E.g: phenobarbital 

5. Allosteric antagonist 

E.g: barbiturates & benzodiazepines

6. Negative allosteric antagonist 

E.g: flumazenil, bicuculline, gabazine

7. Competitive antagonist 

E.g: naloxone

8. Non-competitive antagonist 

E.g: ketamine

9. Partial antagonist 

E.g: adrenargic blockers

10. Mixed antagonist 

E.g: pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine

      Agonist vs Antagonist
Drug that activates a receptorDrug that does not activate a receptor
Does not interfere with the action of antagonistsPrevent the activation of the receptor by an agonist
Differ in both afficacy & affinity for the receptor Are zero efficacy drugs
Agonists compete with other agonist for binding siteCompetitive antagonists bind to the same receptor
Produces an action or responseProduces It's opposition response
Initiates the action of neurotransmitters in the brainBlocks the action of neurotransmitters
After binding with receptors, agonists initiate physiological response Blocks or inhibits physiological responses after binding with receptors
Types include full agonist, inverse agonist, direct agonist, indirect agonist etc.Types are: full antagonist, physical antagonist, chemical antagonist, competitive antagonist, non-competitive antagonist etc.

General Mechanism of Action of Agonist

General Mechanism of Action of Antagonist 

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